Trends in abundance from 1953 to 2013 for demersal (A), benthopelagic (B) and pelagic (C) cephalopods (all edf = 1, all p values ≤ 0.01), with number of time-series by life-history group (D; total n = 67). Illustrations depict key taxa associated with each group. Trends in abundance for time-series derived from fisheries data (E) and survey data (F) (all edf = 1, all p values < 0.05). For all abundance plots, dark blue lines represent fitted values derived from generalised additive mixed models (± 95% CI) and black lines represent mean standardized time-series (z-scores). Graphic: Doubleday, et al., 2016 / Current Biology

24 May 2016 (University of Adelaide) – Unlike the declining populations of many fish species, the number of cephalopods (octopus, cuttlefish, and squid) has increased in the world’s oceans over the past 60 years, a University of Adelaide study has found.

The international team, led by researchers from the University’s Environment Institute, compiled a global database of cephalopod catch rates to investigate long-term trends in abundance, published in Cell Press journal Current Biology.

“Our analyses showed that cephalopod abundance has increased since the 1950s, a result that was remarkably consistent across three distinct groups,” says lead author Dr Zoë Doubleday, Research Fellow in the Environment Institute and School of Biological Sciences.

“Cephalopods are often called ‘weeds of the sea’ as they have a unique set of biological traits, including rapid growth, short lifespans, and flexible development. These allow them to adapt to changing environmental conditions (such as temperature) more quickly than many other marine species, which suggests that they may be benefiting from a changing ocean environment.”

Dr Doubleday says the research stemmed from an investigation of declining numbers of the iconic Giant Australian cuttlefish.

“There has been a lot of concern over declining numbers of the iconic Giant Australian cuttlefish at the world-renowned breeding ground in South Australia’s Spencer Gulf,” Dr Doubleday says. “To determine if similar patterns were occurring elsewhere, we compiled this global-scale database. Surprisingly, analyses revealed that cephalopods, as a whole, are in fact increasing; and since this study, cuttlefish numbers from this iconic population near Whyalla are luckily bouncing back.”

Project leader Professor Bronwyn Gillanders says large-scale changes to the marine environment, brought about by human activities, may be driving the global increase in cephalopods.

“Cephalopods are an ecologically and commercially important group of invertebrates that are highly sensitive to changes in the environment,” Professor Gillanders says. “We’re currently investigating what may be causing them to proliferate – global warming and overfishing of fish species are two theories. It is a difficult, but important question to answer, as it may tell us an even bigger story about how human activities are changing the ocean.”

Cephalopods are found in all marine habitats and, as well as being voracious predators, they are also an important source of food for many marine species, as well as humans.

“As such, the increase in abundance has significant and complex implications for both the marine food web and us,” says Dr Doubleday.


Dr Zoe Doubleday (email)
Research Fellow
Environment Institute
The University of Adelaide
Mobile: +61 (0) 400 147 175

Ms Robyn Mills (email)
Media and Communications Officer
The University of Adelaide
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Squids on the rise as oceans change

ABSTRACT: Human activities have substantially changed the world’s oceans in recent decades, altering marine food webs, habitats and biogeochemical processes [1]. Cephalopods (squid, cuttlefish and octopuses) have a unique set of biological traits, including rapid growth, short lifespans and strong life-history plasticity, allowing them to adapt quickly to changing environmental conditions [2–4]. There has been growing speculation that cephalopod populations are proliferating in response to a changing environment, a perception fuelled by increasing trends in cephalopod fisheries catch [4,5]. To investigate long-term trends in cephalopod abundance, we assembled global time-series of cephalopod catch rates (catch per unit of fishing or sampling effort). We show that cephalopod populations have increased over the last six decades, a result that was remarkably consistent across a highly diverse set of cephalopod taxa. Positive trends were also evident for both fisheries-dependent and fisheries-independent time-series, suggesting that trends are not solely due to factors associated with developing fisheries. Our results suggest that large-scale, directional processes, common to a range of coastal and oceanic environments, are responsible. This study presents the first evidence that cephalopod populations have increased globally, indicating that these ecologically and commercially important invertebrates may have benefited from a changing ocean environment.

Global proliferation of cephalopods



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