Rep. Lamar Smith (R-Texas), despite being chairman of the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, has a long history of dismissing mainstream climate science. In an op-ed published on 24 July 2017 in The Daily Signal, Smith extolled the virtues of global warming. Photo: Bill Clark / Cq Roll Call / Getty Images

By Chris D’Angelo
24 July 2017

WASHINGTON (Huffington Post) – Rep. Lamar Smith (R-Texas) — who has spent his career cozying up to fossil fuel interests, dismissing the threat of climate change and harassing federal climate scientists — is now arguing that pumping the atmosphere full of carbon dioxide is “beneficial” to global trade, crop production and the lushness of the planet.

Rather than buying into “hysteria,” Americans should be celebrating the plus sides of a changing climate, Smith argues in an op-ed published on 24 July 2017 in The Daily Signal, a news website published by the conservative Heritage Foundation [Don’t Believe the Hysteria Over Carbon Dioxide].

Smith — who has used his power as chairman of the House Committee on Science, Space and Technology to push his anti-science views — kicks off his op-ed by claiming Americans’ perception of the phenomenon is “too often determined by their hearing just one side of the story.”

“The benefits of a changing climate are often ignored and under-researched,” Smith said. “Our climate is too complex and the consequences of misguided policies too harsh to discount the positive effects of carbon enrichment.” […]

Smith goes as far as to make a case for why a rapidly melting Arctic, which scientists warn could cost tens of trillions of dollars by the end of this century, is a positive thing.

“Also, as the Earth warms, we are seeing beneficial changes to the earth’s geography,” he writes. “For instance, Arctic sea ice is decreasing. This development will create new commercial shipping lanes that provide faster, more convenient, and less costly routes between ports in Asia, Europe, and eastern North America. This will increase international trade and strengthen the world economy.” […]

Michael Mann, a climate scientist at Pennsylvania State University who sparred with Smith during a March hearing on climate science, told HuffPost via email that “it is clear” Smith is “slowly advancing through the stages of denial … having apparently now moved from ‘it’s not happening,’ to ’ok—it’s happening, but IT WILL BE GOOD FOR US!”

“One step at a time I suppose,” Mann wrote, “but at least there is some apparent progress toward the truth (that climate change is real, human-caused, and already a problem).” [more]

House Science Committee Chair Says Climate Change Is A Good Thing

Aerial view of Nairobi’s Ndakaini reservoir in January 2017 - the water levels were already low then. Photo: B Bidder / The Guardian

By Cathy Watson
24 July 2017

(The Guardian) – For the team managing Nairobi’s water, the stakes have never been so high. Water-rationing has been going on in Kenya’s capital since 1 January 2017, and supplies might run dry by September. The last two rainy seasons were dismal; more rain is not expected until October and cannot be counted on.

For the city’s 3.4 million residents, the possibility of the entire city running dry is so beyond their control that most bat the thought away and soldier on, storing water in jerry cans when taps flow. But the problem is getting harder to ignore. On 14 July, Nairobi City County declared a cholera outbreak, citing among causes “irregular supply of potable water”. How bad might this get?

“At the end of every rainy season I have excess water, but this year no, we’re only 37% full,” says Job Kihamba, who manages Ndakaini, the storage dam that traps three rivers that flow down from the Aberdare mountain range and releases the water in the dry season. The Ndakaini–Ng’ethu system accounts for 85% of Nairobi’s water; every day the engineer measures what comes in, what leaves, and the safety of the dam wall.

For the last 12 months water has been short. The rains in October–December 2016 delivered just 268mm of water compared to about 700mm expected from rainfall patterns in recent years. Then the March–May rains this year were late. When I visited Ndakaini with colleagues from the World Agroforestry Centre in April, the reservoir was just 20% full, an unprecedented low. We gazed at the exposed mud and, looking towards the city, thought “Who down there knows?”

Finally, the rains came on 1 May, but delivered just 440mm of the 1,000mm expected during the rainy season. Today the Chania and Sasumua, two rivers that supply the city, resemble streams.

The water available to the city has plummeted. Nairobi’s water company is distributing 400,000 cubic metres a day, 150,000 less than it used to and 350,000 less than the city needs; 60% of the population lacks reliable water. Of 78 public boreholes, only 48 work. “Nairobi used to be a swamp but is no longer behaving like one. Our underground rivers have dried up,” says engineer Lucy Njambi Macharia, Nairobi City Water and Sewerage Company (NCWSC) environment manager. Swamps are the recharge areas, but they have been built upon. The county is attempting to address this but is “overwhelmed by urbanisation and the need for housing”. [more]

Thirsty city: after months of water rationing Nairobi may run dry

A funnel in the Siberian permafrost on the Yamal peninsula, caused by the explosion of methane from thawing permafrost. In one recent explosion, permafrost soil was thrown around 1 kilometre from the epicentre of the blast, highlighting the huge force, scientists discovered. Flames shot into the sky, and a 50 metre-deep crater was formed from the eruption. Photo: Vasily Bogoyavlensky / The Siberian Times

10 July 2017 (The Siberian Times) – New analysis by satellite and helicopter shows  gas pipelines run right over swelling tundra which is deeply unstable due to the release of underground methane that had been frozen in permafrost - now thawing - for thousands of years, revealed Russia's leading expert on the new phenomenon, Professor Vasily Bogoyavlensky.

In one recent explosion, permafrost soil was thrown around 1 kilometre from the epicentre of the blast, highlighting the huge force, scientists discovered.

Flames shot into the sky, and a 50 metre-deep crater was formed from the eruption.

The process is seen as caused by the warming Arctic climate and has vast implications for the energy industry in polar regions.

Gas from Yamal is crucial to both Russia and the European energy system, with exports in particular to Poland and Germany.

Some 7,000 pingos - scientific name hydrolaccoliths - have been identified in Yamal, and one estimate is that some 700 of these mounds could be prone to eruptions.

Most are harmless but the difficulty for experts is identifying which are dangerous.

'In a number of areas pingos - we see  both from satellite data with own eyes during helicopter inspections - they literally prop up gas pipes,' said the professor. [more]

Gas pipelines supplying Europe 'in real danger from exploding tundra' - top scientist

Vigilantism has occurred during protests in Venezuela. In this photo, demonstrators set fire to Orlando Figuera, a man accused of stealing at a protest. Photo: Meridith Kohut / The New York Times

By Meridith Kohut
22 July 2017

CARACAS, Venezuela (The New York Times) – Motley throngs of masked antigovernment protesters hurl rocks, fireworks and Molotov cocktails. The police and soldiers retaliate with tear gas, water cannon blasts, rubber bullets and buckshot.

An uprising is brewing in Venezuela.

Nearly every day for more than three months, thousands have taken to the streets to vent fury at President Nicolás Maduro and his increasingly repressive leadership.

These confrontations often turn into lopsided and sometimes lethal street brawls — more than 90 people have been killed and more than 3,000 arrested.

I have worked as a photojournalist for The New York Times in Venezuela for nine years, and for the past two have focused on the plight of Venezuelans struggling with the worst economic crisis in the country’s history.

I have witnessed their growing anger as food and medicine disappear and Mr. Maduro’s authoritarianism intensifies.

His government has delayed elections while jailing protesters and political opponents. Now he has called for a new constituent assembly to be elected at the end of the month, empowered to rewrite the Constitution, which many Venezuelans have called a blatant power grab and threat to their democracy.

Mr. Maduro has called the protests a violent attempt to overthrow his government. Demonstrators say they are invoking their right to rebellion against tyranny, guaranteed by the Constitution he wants to revise. [more]

The Battle for Venezuela, Through a Lens, Helmet and Gas Mask

Time-series trends in normalized upstream GHG intensities of twenty-five global oil fields (offshore and onshore) with different extraction practices (water injection/flooding, gas injection/flooding/lifting, or steam flooding) over the course of production in the period of 1949–2015. a, Heavy oils. b, Medium oils. c, Light oils. Filled and hollow markers represent offshore and onshore fields, respectively. The Spraberry Trend field GHG intensities follow a similar flat trend as the mid-50s and ends at year 67. ... Graphic: Masnadi and Brandt, 2017 / Nature Climate Change

17 July 2017
By Ker Than

(Stanford News) – Even oilfields aren’t immune to the ravages of time: A new study finds that as some of the world’s largest oilfields age, the energy required to keep them operating can rise dramatically even as the amount of petroleum they produce drops.

Failing to take the changing energy requirements of oilfields into account can cause oilfield managers or policymakers to underestimate the true climate impacts, Stanford scientists warn.

The new findings, published in the journal Nature Climate Change, have implications for long-term emissions and climate modeling, as well as climate policy. “Current climate and energy system models typically don’t explore the impacts of oil reservoir depletion in any detail,” said study co-author Adam Brandt, an assistant professor of energy resources engineering at Stanford’s School of Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences. “As oilfields run low, emissions per unit of oil increase. This should be accounted for in future modeling efforts.”

An accurate estimate

In the new study, Stanford postdoctoral researcher Mohammad Masnadi worked with Brandt to apply a new software tool developed at Stanford for calculating greenhouse gas emissions to oilfields around the world that have produced more than 1 billion barrels of oil over their lifetimes, sometimes called “super-giant” oilfields.

Conventional greenhouse gas estimates calculate emissions through a kind of economic reverse engineering, whereby an economic index is used to convert the monetary value of an oilfield’s final products – whether it be processed oil, natural gas or petroleum-based products – into greenhouse gas emissions. “This top-down approach for converting economic values into environmental and energetic costs misses a lot of underlying information,” Masnadi said.

What’s more, many studies look at data from only a single point in time, and as a result capture only a snapshot of an oilfield’s greenhouse gas emissions. But the Stanford scientists argue that in order to paint the most accurate picture of an oilfield’s true climate impacts – and also have the best chance of reducing those impacts – it’s necessary to assess the energy costs associated with every stage of the petroleum production process, and to do so for the oilfield’s entire lifetime.

Developed in Brandt’s lab at Stanford, a software tool called the Oil Production Greenhouse gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE) is designed to do just that. For any given oilfield, OPGEE performs what’s known as a lifecycle assessment, analyzing each phase of the oil production process – extraction, refinement and transportation. It then uses computer models to calculate how much energy is consumed during each step. From this, scientists can calculate precisely how much greenhouse gas each oilfield emits.

“This bottom-up type of analysis hasn’t been done before because it’s difficult,” Masnadi said. “For this study, we needed over 50 different pieces of data for each oilfield for each year. When you’re trying to analyze an oilfield across decades, that’s a lot of data.”

Unfortunately, most oil companies are reluctant to release this type of temporal data about their oilfields. The Stanford researchers developed two workarounds to this problem. First, they gathered data from places where transparency laws require oil production data be made publically available. These included Canada, Norway, and the U.K., and the state of California in the U.S. Secondly, the pair conducted a deep data mine of the scientific literature to seek out clues about oilfield production levels in published studies.

Diminishing returns

In the end, the pair ended up with data going back decades for 25 globally important super-giant oilfields. Applying OPGEE to this group, the scientists found that for many of the super-giant oilfields, oil production declined with time as the wells were depleted, but the energy expended to capture the remaining oil went up.

“The more oil that is extracted, the more difficult it becomes to extract the oil that remains, so companies have to resort to increasingly energy-intensive recovery methods, such as water, steam or gas flooding,” Masnadi said.

Making matters worse, oil recovered through such methods has to undergo more intense surface processing to filter out the excess water and gas. In the latter case, this can result in an excess of carbon dioxide and methane gas that is typically eliminated through burning – a process called “flaring” – or venting into the atmosphere.

“We can show with these results that a typical large oilfield will have a doubling of emissions per barrel of oil over a 25-year operating period,” Brandt said.

Win-win

How to stop this harmful cycle? One way is through tougher government regulations that force companies to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions or risk having to lower production. This has been shown to work at two Canadian offshore fields, Hibernia and Terra Nova, where regulations have sharply lowered greenhouse gas emissions by limiting oil production in fields where gas is wasted through flaring and venting.

“Better regulation is certainly part of the answer, but a more progressive solution is to encourage energy companies to draw the energy they need to operate their aging oilfields from renewable sources such as solar, wind or geothermal,” Masnadi said.

He cites the example of the California-based company GlassPoint Solar, which uses solar-powered steam generators to reduce the gas consumption and carbon emissions of its oilfields by up to 80 percent.

Done right, such solutions could end up being a win-win for industry and the environment, the Stanford scientists said, by helping oil companies drive down energy costs while simultaneously reducing their climate impacts.

The OPGEE tool Brandt’s team developed has already been adopted by the California Air Resources Board to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions from transport fuels, but Brandt thinks it could also prove useful to industry.

“This can serve as a stepping stone toward lifecycle management of field emissions,” Brandt said. “Companies could plan operations to maximize production while minimizing emissions.”

Funding for the study, titled “Climate impacts of oil extraction increase significantly with oilfield age,” was provided by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and Ford Motor Co.

Contact

Adam Brandt, School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences: (650) 724-8251, abrandt@stanford.edu
Mohammad Masnadi, School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences: masnadi@stanford.edu
Ker Than, School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences: (650) 723-9820, kerthan@stanford.edu

Climate impacts of super-giant oilfields go up with age, Stanford scientists say


Effect of FOR on total LCA GHG intensities of two Canadian offshore oil fields (Hibernia and Terra Nova) over the course of production until 2015. a, Hibernia and Terra Nova FOR ratio. b, Upstream GHG intensities, default and with flare data. Graphic: Masnadi and Brandt, 2017 / Nature Climate Change

ABSTRACT: Record-breaking temperatures1 have induced governments to implement targets for reducing future greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions2, 3. Use of oil products contributes ~35% of global GHG emissions4, and the oil industry itself consumes 3–4% of global primary energy. Because oil resources are becoming increasingly heterogeneous, requiring different extraction and processing methods, GHG studies should evaluate oil sources using detailed project-specific data5. Unfortunately, prior oil-sector GHG analysis has largely neglected the fact that the energy intensity of producing oil can change significantly over the life of a particular oil project. Here we use decades-long time-series data from twenty-five globally significant oil fields (>1 billion barrels ultimate recovery) to model GHG emissions from oil production as a function of time. We find that volumetric oil production declines with depletion, but this depletion is accompanied by significant growth—in some cases over tenfold—in per-MJ GHG emissions. Depletion requires increased energy expenditures in drilling, oil recovery, and oil processing. Using probabilistic simulation, we derive a relationship for estimating GHG increases over time, showing an expected doubling in average emissions over 25 years. These trends have implications for long-term emissions and climate modelling, as well as for climate policy.

Climate impacts of oil extraction increase significantly with oilfield age

Screenshot of a 6 October 2016 email from Mark Pfeifle, who runs the secretive firm, 'Off the Record Strategies', and served as communications advisor in the George W. Bush administration, leading PR efforts for the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. The email shows how the pro-DAPL propaganda campaign placed the talking point, '85 percent of arrested #NoDAPL protesters were from outside of North Dakota', in social media. Graphic: MuckRock / Desmog Blog

By Steve Horn and Curtis Waltman
20 July 2017

(MuckRock) – Behind the scenes, as law enforcement officials tried to stem protests against the Dakota Access pipeline, alumni from the George W. Bush White House were leading a crisis communications effort to discredit pipeline protesters.

Emails show that the firms Delve and Off the Record Strategies, apparently working on contract with the National Sheriffs’ Association, worked in secret on talking points, media outreach, and communications training for law enforcement dealing with Dakota Access opponents mobilized at the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation in Cannon Ball, North Dakota. This revelation comes from documents obtained via an open records request from the Laramie County Sheriff's Department in Wyoming.

As previously reported by DeSmog, the GOP-connected firm DCI Group led the forward-facing public relations efforts for Dakota Access via a front group called Midwest Alliance for Infrastructure Now (MAIN). Today MAIN has morphed into a national effort known as Grow America’s Infrastructure Now (GAIN).

Delve is an opposition research firm run by Jeff Berkowitz, former Republican National Committee research director and official in the George W. Bush White House. His company led research efforts on behalf of the National Sheriffs' Association.

Off the Record Strategies, meanwhile, guided the sheriffs’ behind-the-scenes communications strategy. Mark Pfeifle runs the secretive firm, Off the Record Strategies, and served as communications advisor in the George W. Bush administration, leading PR efforts for the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.

The National Sheriffs’ Association, a trade group for sheriffs, has been lobbying the federal government for additional surplus military gear from the Department of Defense under the auspices of its 1033 program. The association was also the central organizing vehicle which brought hundreds of out-of-state cops to Standing Rock via the Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC).

Law enforcement present at Standing Rock under EMAC came under fire for a heavy-handed and overtly military-like response to pipeline protesters.

'Guns, Knives, Etc.'

According to an October 4, 2016 email sent by Chelsea Rider, content strategist for the sheriffs’ association, Pfeifle drafted the talking points used by law enforcement in an attempt to discredit the anti-Dakota Access movement. Representatives of that movement referred to themselves as “water protectors” because they opposed the pipeline crossing Lake Oahe and the Missouri River, a source of drinking water for the Standing Rock Sioux and others downriver.

The document attached to that email, according to its metadata, indicates it was indeed written by Pfeifle, and then given to the acting public information officer, Donnell Hushka of the North Dakota Association of Counties, who handled information related to the protests at Standing Rock.

The talking points purported that the movement was led by “out-of-state agitators” with gang and drug-dealing ties, had connections to “anarchists” and “Palestinian activists,” used violence, and possessed “guns, knives, etc.” In addition, the messaging included calls to “follow the money” in pursuit of potential funding support from liberal elites such as George Soros and Tom Steyer. [more]

Emails Show Iraq War PR Alums Led Attempt to Discredit Dakota Access Protesters

One of the first images of the melted nuclear fuel at the Fukushima nuclear power plant, the lower part of a control rod mechanism inside reactor Unit Three, revealed on 21 July 2017. Photo: TEPCO / AFP

23 July 2017 (BBC News) – An underwater robot has captured what is believed to be the first images of melted nuclear fuel deposits inside Japan's stricken Fukushima nuclear plant, its operator Tepco says.

Large amounts of solidified lava-like rocks and lumps in layers were seen underneath its unit three reactor.

If confirmed, it would be a major milestone in the clear-up operation. […]

Tokyo Electric Power Company (Tepco) said that the images - revealed on Friday - were the first "high likely" sighting of melted fuel since the 2011 disaster.

"There is a high possibility that the solidified objects are mixtures of melted metal and fuel that fell from the vessel," a spokesman said.

Some of the objects appeared like icicles hanging around a control rod mechanism, which is attached to the bottom of the reactor's pressure vessel holding the core, the company said.

According to the Japan Times, fuel rod assemblies contained in the pressure vessel melted into a puddle and burned through the bottom after the tsunami six years ago.

Lumps of material that appeared to have melted and re-solidified near the wall of the pedestal, a concrete structure supporting the pressure vessel, were also captured on camera.

The company said more time was needed to analyse the debris further.

The deposits were found underneath the core inside the primary containment vessel of Fukushima's unit 3 reactor. [more]

'Melted nuclear fuel' found at Fukushima

People wait for buses in shades in east China's Shanghai, 21 July 2017. The meteorological department of east China metropolis Shanghai recorded an air temperature of 40.9 degrees Celsius (105.6 degrees Fahrenheit) at around 2 p.m. Friday, the highest on record in the city in 145 years. Photo: Fang Zhe / Xinhua

SHANGHAI, 21 July 2017 (Xinhua) – The meteorological department of east China metropolis Shanghai recorded an air temperature of 40.9 degrees Celsius (105.6 degrees Fahrenheit) at around 2 p.m. Friday, the highest on record in the city in 145 years.

A red alert for high temperatures was issued by the Shanghai Central Meteorological Observatory on Friday.

The previous record high temperature in the city of 40.8 degrees Celsius was recorded on Aug. 7, 2013. A total of 13 high temperature red alerts have been issued since the new meteorological early warning system was adopted in 2007.

China has a three-tier early warning system for high temperatures: a yellow warning is issued when high temperatures above 35 degrees Celsius are predicted for three consecutive days, orange indicates a predicted high temperature of 37 degrees Celsius in the next 24 hours, and a red alert is issued when the temperature is forecast to reach 40 degrees Celsius within 24 hours.

Heat waves have hit the city since the beginning of summer and are expected to linger until the end of July.

Shanghai grilled by hottest day in 145 years


Two ladies riding with sun protective clothes in Hengshan Road, east China's Shanghai, 21 July 2017. The meteorological department of east China metropolis Shanghai recorded an air temperature of 40.9 degrees Celsius (105.6 degrees Fahrenheit) at around 2 p.m. Friday, the highest on record in the city in 145 years. Photo: Fan Jun / Xinhua

21 July 2017 – Shanghai sweltered under a new record high of 40.9 degrees Centigrade (105 F) on Friday, authorities said  as they issued a weather "red alert" over a stubborn heat wave that has plagued much of the country.

Hospitals in the city have reported increased numbers of patients suffering from heat-related illnesses, according to state media, and the Shanghai zoo said it was putting large blocks of ice into some animal enclosures to help them beat the heat, while providing frozen apples to its pandas.

China's most populous city has baked under soaring summer temperatures for more than two weeks and Friday afternoon reached the hottest point since the establishment of its benchmark weather station in 1872, the municipal weather bureau said.

Other areas of China also have seen records set in recent weeks, in what has been a torrid summer so far for much of the country, while large areas of south-central China have endured raging floods from torrential rain.

Shanghai's "red alert"—the first this year—is triggered when temperatures in excess of 40 degrees are forecast and comes with a warning to citizens to keep cool and avoid too much time outdoors, especially children, the elderly, or the sick. […]

Shanghai is getting hotter—the previous record of 40.8 degrees was set only in 2013, and eight of the 12 highest temperatures reached over the past century were recorded in the last five years, according to the city weather bureau. [more]

Hottest day ever in Shanghai as heat wave bakes China

A fire crew stands with their truck near a forest fire in British Columbia, 22 July 2017. Hills firey are lending a hand to put out Canadia forest fires. Photo: Erica Roy / ibusinesslines

21 July 2017 (Insurance Journal) – British Columbia is extending a state of emergency for two more weeks as wildfires sweeping across the province’s interior show no sign of slowing.

Premier John Horgan said Wednesday that his government’s first priority is to support the more than 45,000 people displaced by the fires, which have so far torched more than 1,235 square miles (3,200 square kilometers) of land.

British Columbia is extending a state of emergency for two more weeks as wildfires sweeping across the province’s interior show no sign of slowing.

Premier John Horgan said Wednesday that his government’s first priority is to support the more than 45,000 people displaced by the fires, which have so far torched more than 1,235 square miles (3,200 square kilometers) of land.

The state of emergency was set to expire Friday, and Horgan said he regrets having to extend it.

“This is unprecedented,” he said. “Traditionally, when an emergency is declared, people are usually back in their homes within the two-week period. That may not be the case for many individuals.”

Some people are still out of their homes because of flooding earlier this year, he said.

Calmer winds have allowed firefighters to build guards around scores of wildfires currently threatening communities in central and southern British Columbia, said chief fire information officer Kevin Skrepnek. He said the number of active fires is decreasing.

The wildfire service said Wednesday that 155 fires are currently burning and 15 of those are threatening communities.

Fire information officer Navi Saini said a person was injured while driving in an evacuated area west of Williams Lake.

She said the person inside the vehicle had been in the area in an attempt to fight the fire.

Officials said Wednesday that a fire that destroyed eight homes north of Kelowna is 100 percent contained and residents of 58 properties in Lake Country can immediately return home, although an evacuation alert remains in place. [more]

British Columbia Wildfires Continue to Rage, Torching 1,235-Plus Square Miles


Several dozen people in the tiny community of Riske Creek, B.C., have taken matters into their own hands and are working to protect their properties from wildfire, 22 July 2017. Photo: Evan Fuller / CBC News

By Liam Britten
22 July 2017

(CBC News) – In a province that routinely has major wildfires, emergency management consultant Jim Lamorte is surprised more people haven't been killed.

Lamorte fears that could change given the reluctance of some British Columbians to obey evacuation orders to stay and protect their properties.

"I do hear people say from time to time they're going to stay behind and protect their home," he said.

"It may be tempting to do that, but their experience with wildfire may be no more than a campfire. … That's not what they're going to experience."

What they will experience, he said, are falling embers swirling and surrounding them. And they'll feel unbearable heat from as far as a kilometre away.

And they may feel the temptation to run to the illusory safety of a structure which could catch fire and ultimately become a tomb. [more]

Experts say don't be a 'garden hose hero' in the face of an evacuation order

 

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